Uses of isotopes in radioactive dating
The emission of an alpha particle results in the formation of an element which lie two place to the left in periodic table and the emission of beta particle results in the formation of an element which lies one place to the right. It first observed in 1919 by Rutherford during the bombardment of alpha particles on the nucleus of nitrogen to form oxygen isotope and proton.Later in 1932 the discovery of neutrons by James Chadwick was also an application of artificial transmutation in which he used the bombardment of alpha particles on the nucleus of beryllium to form neutron and carbon nucleus.He concludes that uranium slats emitted some radiation like X-rays which can causes ionization in air.He called these rays as radioactive rays and this property as radioactivity.This nuclei with decomposed is called as parent nuclei and the product nuclei is termed as daughter nuclei.The atomic number and mass depends upon the type of radioactive rays emitted during nuclear reaction.The atoms of radioactive elements on the emission of alpha particles and beta particles would change into atoms of another element.
The unstable radioactive elements show nuclear decay which is a spontaneous cleavage of an atomic nucleus with the formation of some other nucleus and release a certain amount of energy.The husband and wife team of Pierre and Marie Curie were aware about the Henri Becquerel experiment and study with their own uranium-containing ores.They proposed the term "radioactivity" which was the spontaneous emissions of radiation from certain elements. They studied some radioactive components like uranium and discovered two new radioactive elements which they named polonium and radium.The radioactive decay or transmutation can occur naturally or by artificial means.
On this basis, transmutation classified as two types.
The radioactivity detector is used for the detection of radioactive rays like; alpha, beta and gamma rays.