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Between 19, over 254,000 foreigners were naturalized.

Austria's proportion of foreign-born residents in 2001 was even higher than that of the United States, reaching a level of 12.5 percent.

Finally, the crushing of the Solidarity movement in Poland in 19 triggered an inflow of about 150,000 Poles.

Of 34,500 asylum applications received in 1981, 29,100 were submitted by Poles.

At the turn of the century, 60 percent of the Viennese population and a staggering 80 percent of Prague's population were thus considered "strangers." Not unlike modern aliens legislation, migration policies in the Habsburg monarchy were more important in terms of their effects on migrants' status than in regulating entry and residence in a given residential area.

In addition to these internal population movements, the monarchy was an important country of emigrants bound mainly for Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and increasingly, the Americas.

Since then, new integration measures have been introduced, the country's accession to the European Union (EU) has brought more open borders, and thousands of temporary seasonal workers have been admitted.

In 1956, as a result of the political uprising and ensuing repression in Hungary, over 180,000 refugees from that country entered Austria.

Dotted with Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, and Polish family names, Vienna's telephone directory is a testimony to immigration's impact on Austria.